A student asked me about the following passage and questions from Cambridge IELTS 8. The answer to both questions is "true", but the student asked me to explain why. Can you help?
Part of the passage:
The nineteenth century saw considerable interest in the nature of genius, and produced not a few studies of famous prodigies... However, the difficulty with the evidence produced by these studies, fascinating as they are in collecting together anecdotes and apparent similarities and exceptions, is that they are not what we would today call norm-referenced. In other words, when, for instance, information is collated about early illnesses, methods of upbringing, schooling, etc., we must also take into account information from other historical sources about how common or exceptional these were at the time. For instance, infant mortality was high and life expectancy much shorter than today, home tutoring was common in the families of the nobility and wealthy, bullying and corporal punishment were common at the best independent schools and, for the most part, the cases studied were members of the privileged classes. It was only with the growth of paediatrics and psychology in the twentieth century that studies could be carried out on a more objective, if still not always very scientific, basis.
Questions (true, false or not given):
- Nineteenth-century studies of the nature of genius failed to take into account the uniqueness of the persons upbringing.
- Nineteenth-century studies of genius lacked both objectivity and a proper scientific approach.